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tv   Politics Public Policy Today  CSPAN  January 18, 2013 8:00pm-10:30pm EST

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we want to be the most talented entrepreneurs in america. we have to make sure the government becomes a partner to the federal gunman becomes a partner of the american people. right now, the presentation i have heard in the last month, or two, in america right now, the inability of cities to do proper transportation planning, law-enforcement planning, investments, because we want to know not only what is happening one year from now but 90 days from now. it is not there because we have got to get our fiscal house in order in washington, d.c., and we are excited about it. >> the mayor of columbia, south carolina, a democrat, and the
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vice president of the u.s. conference of mayors. gentlemen, thank you for being here. guest: thank you. [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2013] >> next, we will show you presidential inauguration speeches. in 1981, ronald reagan was nominated as the 40th president. the former california governor won the election against the incumbent, and at issue was the iran contra crisis, where americans were held for over 400 days after a group of islamic militants and students took over the embassy. as he was giving his inauguration address, the militants were being released. this is about 25 minutes. [applause]
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>> governor, are you prepared to take the constitutional oath? >> i am. >> raise your right hand and repeat after me. i, ronald reagan, do solemnly swear, that i will faithfully execute the office of president of the united states and will come to the best of my ability preserve, protect, and defend the constitution of the united states. so help you god. >> so help me, god. [applause] ♪ ["hail to the chief" plays]
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>> >> the president of the united states. [applause] >> thank you. thank you. senator hatfield, mr.
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justice, mr. president, vice president bush, vice president mondale, senator baker, speaker o'neill, reverend moomaw, and my fellow citizens, to a few of us here today this is a solemn and most momentous occasion, and yet in the history of our nation it is a commonplace occurrence. the orderly transfer of authority as called for in the constitution routinely takes place, as it has for almost two centuries, and few of us stop to think how unique we really are. in the eyes of many in the world, this every-4-year ceremony we accept as normal is nothing less than a miracle. mr. president, i want our fellow citizens to know how much you did to carry on this tradition. by your gracious cooperation in
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the transition process, you have shown a watching world that we are a united people pledged to maintaining a political system which guarantees individual liberty to a greater degree than any other, and i thank you and your people for all your help in maintaining the continuity which is the bulwark of our republic. [applause] the business of our nation goes forward. these united states are confronted with an economic affliction of great proportions. we suffer from the longest and one of the worst sustained inflations in our national history. it distorts our economic decisions, penalizes thrift, and crushes the struggling young
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and the fixed-income elderly alike. it threatens to shatter the lives of millions of our people. idle industries have cast workers into unemployment, human misery, and personal indignity. those who do work are denied a fair return for their labor by a tax system which penalizes successful achievement and keeps us from maintaining full productivity. but great as our tax burden is, it has not kept pace with public spending. for decades we have piled deficit upon deficit, mortgaging our future and our children's future for the temporary convenience of the present. to continue this long trend is to guarantee tremendous social, cultural, political, and economic upheavals. you and i, as individuals, can, by borrowing, live beyond our
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means, but for only a limited period of time. why, then, should we think that collectively, as a nation, we're not bound by that same limitation? we must act today in order to preserve tomorrow. and let there be no misunderstanding -- we are going to begin to act, beginning today. [applause] the economic ills we suffer have come upon us over several decades. they will not go away in days, weeks, or months, but they will go away. they will go away because we as americans have the capacity now, as we've had in the past, to do whatever needs to be done to preserve this last and greatest bastion of freedom. in this present crisis, government is not the solution
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to our problem, government is the problem. [applause] from time to time we've been tempted to believe that society has become too complex to be managed by self-rule, that government by an elite group is superior to government for, by, and of the people. well, if no one among us is capable of governing himself, then who among us has the capacity to govern someone else? all of us together, in and out of government, must bear the burden. the solutions we seek must be
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equitable, with no one group singled out to pay a higher price. we hear much of special interest groups. well, our concern must be for a special interest group that has been too long neglected. it knows no sectional boundaries or ethnic and racial divisions, and it crosses political party lines. it is made up of men and women who raise our food, patrol our streets, man our mines and factories, teach our children, keep our homes, and heal us when we're sick -- professionals, industrialists, shopkeepers, clerks, cabbies, and truckdrivers. they are, in short, we the people, this breed called americans. well, this administration's objective will be a healthy, vigorous, growing economy that provides equal opportunities for all americans with no barriers born of bigotry or discrimination. putting america back to work means putting all americans back to work.
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ending inflation means freeing all americans from the terror of runaway living costs. all must share in the productive work of this new beginning,' and all must share in the bounty of a revived economy. with the idealism and fair play which are the core of our system and our strength, we can have a strong and prosperous america, at peace with itself and the world. so, as we begin, let us take inventory. we are a nation that has a government -- not the other way around. and this makes us special among the nations of the earth. our government has no power except that granted it by the people. it is time to check and reverse the growth of government, which shows signs of having grown beyond the consent of the governed. it is my intention to curb the size and influence of the federal establishment and to demand recognition of the
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distinction between the powers granted to the federal government and those reserved to the states or to the people. [applause] all of us need to be reminded that the federal government did not create the states, the states created the federal government. [applause] now, so there will be no misunderstanding, it's not my intention to do away with government. it is rather to make it work -- work with us, not over us, to stand by our side, not ride on our back. government can and must provide opportunity, not smother it, foster productivity, not stifle it. if we look to the answer as to
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why for so many years we achieved so much, prospered as no other people on earth, it was because here in this land we unleashed the energy and individual genius of man to a greater extent than has ever been done before. freedom and the dignity of the individual have been more available and assured here than in any other place on earth. the price for this freedom at times has been high, but we have never been unwilling to pay that price. it is no coincidence that our present troubles parallel and are proportionate to the intervention and intrusion in our lives that result from unnecessary and excessive growth of government. it is time for us to realize that we're too great a nation to limit ourselves to small dreams.
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we're not, as some would have us believe, doomed to an inevitable decline. i do not believe in a fate that will fall on us no matter what we do. i do believe in a fate that will fall on us if we do nothing. so, with all the creative energy at our command, let us begin an era of national renewal. let us renew our determination, our courage, and our strength. and let us renew our faith and our hope. we have every right to dream heroic dreams. those who say that we're in a time when there are not heroes, they just don't know where to look. you can see heroes every day going in and out of factory gates. others, a handful in number, produce enough food to feed all of us and then the world beyond. you meet heroes across a counter, and they're on both sides of that counter. there are entrepreneurs with
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faith in themselves and faith in an idea who create new jobs, new wealth and opportunity. they're individuals and families whose taxes support the government and whose voluntary gifts support church, charity, culture, art, and education. their patriotism is quiet, but deep. their values sustain our national life. now, i have used the words "they'' and "their'' in speaking of these heroes. i could say "you'' and "your,'' because i'm addressing the heroes of whom i speak -- you, the citizens of this blessed land. your dreams, your hopes, your goals are going to be the dreams, the hopes, and the goals of this administration, so help me god. we shall reflect the compassion
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that is so much a part of your makeup. how can we love our country and not love our countrymen, and loving them, reach out a hand when they fall, heal them when they're sick, and provide opportunity to make them self- sufficient so they will be equal in fact and not just in theory? can we solve the problems confronting us? well, the answer is an unequivocal and emphatic "yes.'' to paraphrase winston churchill, i did not take the oath i've just taken with the intention of presiding over the dissolution of the world's strongest economy. in the days ahead i will propose removing the roadblocks that have slowed our economy and reduced productivity.
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steps will be taken aimed at restoring the balance between the various levels of government. progress may be slow, measured in inches and feet, not miles, but we will progress. it is time to reawaken this industrial giant, to get government back within its means, and to lighten our punitive tax burden. and these will be our first priorities, and on these principles there will be no compromise. on the eve of our struggle for independence a man who might have been one of the greatest among the founding fathers, dr. joseph warren, president of the massachusetts congress, said to his fellow americans, "our country is in danger, but not
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to be despaired of. on you depend the fortunes of america. you are to decide the important questions upon which rests the happiness and the liberty of millions yet unborn. act worthy of yourselves." well, i believe we, the americans of today, are ready to act worthy of ourselves, ready to do what must be done to ensure happiness and liberty for ourselves, our children, and our children's children. and as we renew ourselves here in our own land, we will be seen as having greater strength throughout the world. we will again be the exemplar of freedom and a beacon of hope for those who do not now have freedom. to those neighbors and allies who share our freedom, we will strengthen our historic ties and assure them of our support and firm commitment. we will match loyalty with loyalty. we will strive for mutually beneficial relations. we will not use our friendship
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to impose on their sovereignty, for our own sovereignty is not for sale. as for the enemies of freedom, those who are potential adversaries, they will be reminded that peace is the highest aspiration of the american people. we will negotiate for it, sacrifice for it, we will not surrender for it, now or ever. [applause] our forbearance should never be misunderstood. our reluctance for conflict should not be misjudged as a failure of will. when action is required to preserve our national security, we will act. we will maintain sufficient strength to prevail if need be,
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knowing that if we do so we have the best chance of never having to use that strength. above all, we must realize that no arsenal or no weapon in the arsenals of the world is so formidable as the will and moral courage of free men and women. it is a weapon our adversaries in today's world do not have. it is a weapon that we as americans do have. let that be understood by those who practice terrorism and prey upon their neighbors. [applause] i'm told that tens of thousands of prayer meetings are being held on this day, and for that i'm deeply grateful. we are a nation under god, and i believe god intended for us to be free. it would be fitting and good, i think, if on each inaugural day in future years it should be
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declared a day of prayer. this is the first time in our history that this ceremony has been held, as you've been told, on this west front of the capitol. standing here, one faces a magnificent vista, opening up on this city's special beauty and history. at the end of this open mall are those shrines to the giants on whose shoulders we stand. directly in front of me, the monument to a monumental man, george washington, father of our country. a man of humility who came to greatness reluctantly. he led america out of revolutionary victory into infant nationhood. off to one side, the stately memorial to thomas jefferson. the declaration of independence flames with his eloquence.
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and then, beyond the reflecting pool, the dignified columns of the lincoln memorial. whoever would understand in his heart the meaning of america will find it in the life of abraham lincoln. beyond those monuments to heroism is the potomac river, and on the far shore the sloping hills of arlington national cemetery, with its row upon row of simple white markers bearing crosses or stars of david. they add up to only a tiny fraction of the price that has been paid for our freedom. each one of those markers is a monument to the kind of hero i spoke of earlier. their lives ended in places called belleau wood, the argonne, omaha beach, salerno, and halfway around the world on guadalcanal, tarawa, pork chop hill, the chosin reservoir, and
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in a hundred rice paddies and jungles of a place called vietnam. under one such marker lies a young man, martin treptow, who left his job in a small town barbershop in 1917 to go to france with the famed rainbow division. there, on the western front, he was killed trying to carry a message between battalions under heavy artillery fire. we're told that on his body was found a diary. on the flyleaf under the heading, "my pledge,'' he had written these words -- "america must win this war. therefore i will work, i will save, i will sacrifice, i will endure, i will fight cheerfully and do my utmost, as if the
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issue of the whole struggle depended on me alone.'' the crisis we are facing today does not require of us the kind of sacrifice that martin treptow and so many thousands of others were called upon to make. it does require, however, our best effort and our willingness to believe in ourselves and to believe in our capacity to perform great deeds, to believe that together with god's help we can and will resolve the problems which now confront us. and after all, why shouldn't we believe that? we are americans. god bless you, and thank you. very much. [applause]
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>> more now about the history of presidential inaugurations. this is a list of firsts that we found on line. the first ceremony broadcast live on the radio was calvin coolidge in 1925. the first one on television was harry truman in 1949, and the first to be streamed live on the internet was president bill clinton's in 1997. the reagan inaugural was the first held on the west front of the u.s. capitol. before, they were always on the east front, and the swearing in of fdr was the first to be held on january 20. the twentieth amendment of the constitution moved it to that date from march 4. bill clinton was sworn in as the 42nd president in 1993, january
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20. he beat the first president bush in the 1992 election, in which independent candidate ross perot got about 19% of the popular vote. this is about 20 minutes. [applause] >> governor, are you ready to take the oath? >> i am. >> would you please raise your right hand? i, william jefferson clinton, do solemnly swear that i will faithfully execute the office of president of the united states -- >> that i will faithfully execute the office of president of the united states -- >> and will to the best of my ability preserve, protect, and defend the constitution of the united states, so help me god.
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>> so help me, god. >> congratulations. [cheers and applause] ♪ ["hail to the chief" plays] [gun salute]
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>> we are getting ready to do it. ladies and gentlemen, the president of the united states of america, william jefferson clinton. [cheers and applause]
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>> my fellow citizens, today we celebrate the mystery of american renewal. this ceremony is held in the depth of winter, but by the words we speak and the faces we show the world, we force the spring, a spring reborn in the world's oldest democracy that brings forth the vision and courage to reinvent america. when our founders boldly declared america's independence to the world and our purposes to the almighty, they knew that america, to endure, would have to change, not change for change's sake but change to preserve america's ideals -- life, liberty, the pursuit of happiness.
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though we marched to the music of our time, our mission is timeless. each generation of americans must define what it means to be an american. on behalf of our nation, i salute my predecessor, president bush, for his half- century of service to america. [applause] and i thank the millions of men and women whose steadfastness and sacrifice triumphed over depression, fascism, and
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communism. today, a generation raised in the shadows of the cold war assumes new responsibilities in a world warmed by the sunshine of freedom but threatened still by ancient hatreds and new plagues. raised in unrivaled prosperity, we inherit an economy that is still the world's strongest but is weakened by business failures, stagnant wages, increasing inequality, and deep divisions among our own people. when george washington first took the oath i have just sworn to uphold, news traveled slowly across the land by horseback and across the ocean by boat. now, the sights and sounds of this ceremony are broadcast instantaneously to billions around the world. communications and commerce are global. investment is mobile.
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technology is almost magical. and ambition for a better life is now universal. we earn our livelihood in america today in peaceful competition with people all across the earth. profound and powerful forces are shaking and remaking our world. and the urgent question of our time is whether we can make change our friend and not our enemy. this new world has already enriched the lives of millions of americans who are able to compete and win in it. but when most people are working harder for less, when others cannot work at all, when the cost of health care devastates families and threatens to bankrupt our enterprises, great and small, when the fear of crime robs law-abiding citizens of their freedom, and when
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millions of poor children cannot even imagine the lives we are calling them to lead, we have not made change our friend. we know we have to face hard truths and take strong steps, but we have not done so, instead, we have drifted. and that drifting has eroded our resources, fractured our economy, and shaken our confidence. though our challenges are fearsome, so are our strengths. americans have ever been a restless, questing, hopeful people. and we must bring to our task today the vision and will of those who came before us. from our revolution to the civil war, to the great depression, to the civil rights movement, our people have always mustered the determination to construct from these crises the pillars of our history. thomas jefferson believed that to preserve the very
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foundations of our nation, we would need dramatic change from time to time. well, my fellow americans, this is our time. let us embrace it. [applause] our democracy must be not only the envy of the world but the engine of our own renewal. there is nothing wrong with america that cannot be cured by what is right with america. and so today we pledge an end to the era of deadlock and drift, and a new season of american renewal has begun. to renew america, we must be bold. we must do what no generation has had to do before.
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we must invest more in our own people, in their jobs, and in their future, and at the same time cut our massive debt. and we must do so in a world in which we must compete for every opportunity. it will not be easy. it will require sacrifice, but it can be done and done fairly, not choosing sacrifice for its own sake but for our own sake. we must provide for our nation the way a family provides for its children. our founders saw themselves in the light of posterity. we can do no less. anyone who has ever watched a child's eyes wander into sleep knows what posterity is. posterity is the world to come -- the world for whom we hold our ideals, from whom we have
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borrowed our planet, and to whom we bear sacred responsibility. we must do what america does best -- offer more opportunity to all and demand more responsibility from all. [applause] it is time to break the bad habit of expecting something for nothing from our government or from each other. let us all take more responsibility not only for ourselves and our families but for our communities and our country. to renew america, we must revitalize our democracy. this beautiful capital, like every capital since the dawn of civilization, is often a place
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of intrigue and calculation. powerful people maneuver for position and worry endlessly about who is in and who is out, who is up and who is down, forgetting those people whose toil and sweat sends us here and pays our way. americans deserve better. and in this city today there are people who want to do better. and so i say to all of you here -- let us resolve to reform our politics so that power and privilege no longer shout down the voice of the people. let us put aside personal advantage so that we can feel the pain and see the promise of america. let us resolve to make our government a place for what franklin roosevelt called bold, persistent experimentation, a government for our tomorrows, not our yesterdays.
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let us give this capital back to the people to whom it belongs. [applause] to renew america, we must meet challenges abroad as well as at home. there is no longer a clear division between what is foreign and what is domestic. the world economy, the world environment, the world aids crisis, the world arms race -- they affect us all. today, as an older order passes, the new world is more free but less stable. communism's collapse has called forth old animosities and new dangers. clearly, america must continue to lead the world we did so much to make. while america rebuilds at home,
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we will not shrink from the challenges nor fail to seize the opportunities of this new world. together with our friends and allies, we will work to shape change, lest it engulf us. when our vital interests are challenged or the will and conscience of the international community is defied, we will act, with peaceful diplomacy whenever possible, with force when necessary. the brave americans serving our nation today in the persian gulf, in somalia, and wherever else they stand are testament to our resolve. but our greatest strength is the power of our ideas, which are still new in many lands. across the world we see them embraced, and we rejoice. our hopes, our hearts, our hands are with those on every continent who are building democracy and freedom. their cause is america's cause. the american people have
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summoned the change we celebrate today. you have raised your voices in an unmistakable chorus. you have cast your votes in historic numbers. and you have changed the face of congress, the presidency, and the political process itself. yes, you, my fellow americans, have forced the spring. now we must do the work the season demands. to that work i now turn with all the authority of my office. i ask the congress to join with me. but no president, no congress, no government can undertake this mission alone. my fellow americans, you, too, must play your part in our renewal. i challenge a new generation of young americans to a season of service -- to act on your idealism by helping troubled children, keeping company with those in need, reconnecting our torn communities.
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there is so much to be done, enough, indeed, for millions of others who are still young in spirit to give of themselves in service, too. in serving, we recognize a simple but powerful truth -- we need each other, and we must care for one another. today we do more than celebrate america. we rededicate ourselves to the very idea of america, an idea born in revolution and renewed through two centuries of challenge, an idea tempered by the knowledge that, but for fate, we, the fortunate, and the unfortunate might have been each other, an idea ennobled by the faith that our nation can summon from its myriad diversity the deepest measure of unity, an idea infused with the conviction that america's long, heroic journey must go forever upward.
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and so, my fellow americans, as we stand at the edge of the 21st century, let us begin anew with energy and hope, with faith and discipline. and let us work until our work is done. the scripture says, "and let us not be weary in well doing -- for in due season we shall reap, if we faint not." from this joyful mountaintop of celebration we hear a call to service in the valley. we have heard the trumpets. we have changed the guard. and now, each in our own way and with god's help, we must answer the call. thank you, and god bless you all.
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[cheers and applause] >> following these presidential inauguration speeches, historian don ritchie. here is an expert on how the phrase "so help me, god" became part of it.
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>> most presidents say, "so help me, god." there was a tradition, a sort of folklore that all of washington said "so help me, god." and we've historians have been looking for this if they said or did not say it. we are not sure of it. one of the accounts was written by washington irving, who was about five years old at the time of washington's inauguration, and years later, he gave his remembrances that washington said, "so help me, god." so it is up to the president of the united states to say
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whatever he wants. most did not say that. they just said, "i do." but starting about in the 1980's, presidents began saying "so help me god." the chief justice's inevitably say, "so help me god." if you look at the constitution, it is not there. it is up to the president to say it. it has become a tradition. tradition, in fact, it in many ways more important. >> now, part of the inaugural of president eisenhower, who defeated at lay stevenson. like this year, the official inaugural day falls on sunday in 1957, president eisenhower was
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sworn in in private, followed by the ceremony on the west front of the capital the next day. this is 10 minutes. ♪ >> do you, dwight d. eisenhower, solemnly swear that you will faithfully execute the office of president of the united states and will to the best of your ability preserve, protect, and defend the constitution of the united states, so help you god? >> so help me, god. >> thank you very much. [applause] >> as the president looked out
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on the gathright, he looked back to 1953, when he offered the famous eisenhower prayer, the first time for such a prayer. >> give us, we pray, the power to discern clearly right from wrong and allow all of our words and actions to be governed by the laws of this land. especially, we pray that our concerns be for all of the people, regardless of station, race, or color. >> -- >> mr. chairman, mr. vice president, mr. chief justice, mr. speaker, members of my family and friends, my countrymen, and the friends of my country, wherever they may be, we meet again, as upon a
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like moment four years ago, and again you have witnessed my solemn oath of service to you. i, too, am a witness, today testifying in your name to the principles and purposes to which we, as a people, are pledged. before all else, we seek, upon our common labor as a nation, the blessings of almighty god. and the hopes in our hearts fashion the deepest prayers of our whole people. may we pursue the right -- without self-righteousness. may we know unity -- without conformity. may we grow in strength -- without pride in self. may we, in our dealings with all
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peoples of the earth, ever speak truth and serve justice. and so shall america -- in the sight of all men of good will -- prove true to the honorable purposes that bind and rule us as a people in all this time of trial through which we pass. we live in a land of plenty, but rarely has this earth known such peril as today. in our nation work and wealth abound. our population grows. commerce crowds our rivers and rails, our skies, harbors, and highways. our soil is fertile, our agriculture productive. the air rings with the song of our industry -- rolling mills and blast furnaces, dynamos,
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dams, and assembly lines -- the chorus of america the bountiful. this is our home -- yet this is not the whole of our world. for our world is where our full destiny lies. >> at the end of his speech, they waved to the cheering crowd. he was led from the sergeant of arms at the house on the left and the sergeant of arms of the senate on the right, to a special luncheon held in the old supreme court room. destiny lies -- with men, of all people, and all nations, who are or would be free. and for them -- and so for us -- this is no time of ease or of rest. in too much of the earth there is want, discord, danger. new forces and new nations stir and strive across the earth,
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>> this beautiful buffet. a sneak preview of the food. the president and mrs. eisenhower eat a hearty meal. the vice president and his wife with mrs. john eisenhower, with the nixon's children. even a solemn ceremony could not dispel the tumor -- humor of black eyes. and chief justice earl warren. and mrs. warren. former president hoover. a senator and his wife, along
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with members of the joint inaugural committee. as the president and his wife leave, they go to the reviewing stand in front of the white house. down pennsylvania avenue, the inaugural parade is led by a platoon of washington d.c. motorcycle police. the president, in an open car, waving to them all, the thousands who lined the parade route.
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as the parade approaches the treasury building, they turn up a street. the president and his wife are followed by the vice president and pat nixon. >> harry truman was inaugurated as the 33rd president. he had already served as president since 1945. as vice presidents, he took office after the death of fdr. this was televised live to the nation. it is coverage of the event from universal newsreels. this is about 20 minutes.
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>> inauguration day, washington, 1949. the biggest inaugural in united states history is getting ready to begin. lining the boulevard, to be part of the triumphant parade. from every state of union, coming to washington on this festive inauguration day. since early morning, spectators have been assembling along the parade route. they a penance and buttons -- pennants and buttons. mrs. truman's daughter margaret, the vice president-elect, and
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the chief executive depart for the inaugural ceremony. mr. truman, now escorted by congressional representatives, goes to the capital. he goes to take the oath of office, thus concluding the greatest political upset in history. in capitol plaza, more than 100,000 people are on hand to witness it. millions more as the event on television and hear it on worldwide radio. among the distinguished guests are generals and admirals and dignitaries from other countries. he goes up the inaugural platform, closely followed by the party and others. a battery of motion picture and television cameras record the event.
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from kentucky, a member of congress for 36 years, has taken his vice presidential oath of office. then, harry s. truman is sworn in by chief justice. >> raise your right hand. do you, harry s. truman, solemnly swear that you will faithfully execute the office of president of the united states and will to the best of your ability -- >> and will to the best of my ability -- >> preserve, protect, and defend
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the constitution of the united states, so help you, god? >> so help me, god. [applause] >> to the nation and the world, a solemn and resolute president declares -- >> mr. vice president, mr. chief justice, fellow citizens, i accept with humility the honor which the american people have conferred upon me. i accept it with a resolve to do all that i can for the welfare of this nation and for the peace of the world. in performing the duties of my office, i need the help and the
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we believe that all men have the right to equal justice under law and equal opportunity to share in the common good. we believe and the right of expression, that all men are created equal because they are created in the image of god. from this phase, we will not be moved. [applause] the american people desire and are determined to worked for a world in which all nations and all peoples are free to govern themselves as they see fit and to achieve a decent and satisfying life. above all else, our people
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desire and are determined to worked for a just and lasting peace, based on agreement freely arrived at by people. in the pursuit of these dreams, the united states and other like-minded nations find themselves directly opposed by a regime of contrary aims and a totally different concept of life. that is a regime that adheres to a false philosophy that purports to offer freedom, security, and greater opportunity to mankind. misled by that philosophy, many people have sacrificed their liberty, only to learn to their sorrow that there is a mockery, and poverty and tyranny are in their own -- their reward.
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that is communism. punishment without trial. forced labor as the chattel of the state. it looks at what information you will press -- you will receive, what are you will produce. democracy is based on the condition that man has the moral and intellectual capacity and is charged with the responsibility of protecting the rights of the individual.
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communism subjects the individual to arrest without lawful cause, punishment without trial, and forced labor as the chattel of the state. we have asked for no privileges we would not extend to others. we have constantly and vigorously supported the united
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nations and related agencies as a means of applying democratic principles to international relations. we shall have as our partners countries which, no longer solely concerned with the problem of national survival, are now working to improve the standards of living of all their people. we are ready to undertake new projects to strengthen a free world. in the coming years, our program for peace and freedom will emphasize four major courses of action. first, we will continue to give unfaltering support to the united nations and related agencies, and we will continue to search for ways to strengthen their authority and increase their effectiveness.
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we believe that the united nations will be strengthened by the new nations which are being formed in lands now advancing toward self-government under democratic principles. second, we will continue our programs for world economic recovery. this means, first of all, that we must keep our full weight behind the european recovery program. third, we will strengthen freedom-loving nations against the dangers of aggression. we are now working out with a number of countries a joint agreement designed to strengthen the security of the north atlantic area. believe that we should make available to peace-loving peoples the benefits of our store of technical knowledge in order to help them realize their aspirations for a better life. our aim should be to help the free peoples of the world, through their own efforts, to produce more food, more clothing, more materials for housing, and more mechanical power to lighten their burdens.
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democracy alone can supply the vitalizing force to stir the peoples of the world into triumphant action, not only against their human oppressors, but also against their ancient enemies-hunger, misery, and despair. on the basis of these four major courses of action we hope to help create the conditions that will lead eventually to personal freedom and happiness for all mankind. we will advance toward a world where man's freedom is secure. to that end we will devote our strength, our resources, and our firmness of resolve.
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with god's help, the future of mankind will be assured in a world of justice, harmony, and peace.[applause] ♪ >> on this chilly day, president truman leaves capitol hill. with more than one million people mining the roof, -- root -- route, there is a procession down pennsylvania avenue. ♪ the army chief of staff, general omar bradley, this greatest parade in the long history of the national capital.
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♪ then come the president and vice president. flanking them, his guard of honor, the men of after a.d., with whom you served as captain in the first world war. cabinet members include the secretary of state and the attorney general of the united states, tom lark. -- tom clark. general dwight d eisenhower writes in the car -- rides in the car. then the battalion of west point.
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the brigade of midshipmen of the united states naval academy passes. next come the cadets of the united states coast guard academy. men of the marine corps marched down the avenue, which today is a parade ground for every branch of the armed services. one of the greatest air armadas to ever fly over the capital. be 36 bombers pass overhead -- b-36 bombers pass overhead.
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the parade is a panorama of american life. missouri has several displays. one, a wagon drawn by missouri mules. other floats depict the product and scenery of the various states. this is kentucky. the vice president's home state . the texas float moves down the avenue. the district of columbia display features reproductions of the capital and the washington monument. the massachusetts floats, honoring the early american settlers who landed on the shore of that state. the figure of uncle sam drives down the avenue.
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labor and fraternal organizations representing millions of members from all over the country, participate in the inaugural festivities. more than 40 bands and many drum course -- corps. ♪ near the white house, the excitement mounts as the chief executive approaches. the president gets a rousing ovation as he prepares to leave his car and take it lace on the stand -- take his place on the stand. ♪
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for nearly three hours, the president and vice president stand together, acknowledging their countrymen. a group of california cowboys salute president truman, and so does their pet dalmatian, much to the president's amusement. they also present him with a gift, a brand-new cowboy hat. the president is cheered by the citizens of missouri, the town from which he was born. people from each of the 48 states honor harry s truman at this inauguration. >> crews are finishing up work
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on the audience bleachers and the presidential reviewing stand in front of the white house for the inaugural parade on monday. some of the finishing touches included the presidential field , attached to a heated, glassed in viewing area. that is where president obama and michelle obama will watch the parade.
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>> throughout inauguration day, our website will have special features, including video feeds from the crew. a visual blog page of behind the scenes photos. all at now, president richard nixon's 1969 in nine to raise in. in the election, president lyndon johnson withdrew from the race, and hubert humphrey was nominated. on election night, george wallace one five states as an independent nominee. here is a resident nixon's
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swearing in and, about 20 minutes. -- and speech, about 20 minutes. >> do you richard milhouse nixon solemnly swear that you will faithfully exit queue the office -- >> that i will faithfully execute the office >> of president of the united states. >> of president of the united states. >> and will, to the best of my ability, observe protect and defend the constitution of the united states so that you got. >> and will, to the best of my ability, observe protect and defend the constitution of the united states, so help me god. [applause] ♪
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>> senator dirksen, mr. chief justice, mr. vice president, president johnson, vice president humphrey, my fellow americans, and my fellow citizens of the world community, i ask you to share with me today the majesty of this moment. in the orderly transfer of
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power, we celebrate the unity that keeps us free. each moment in history is a fleeting time, precious and unique. but some stand out as moments of beginning, in which courses are set that shape decades or centuries. this can be such a moment. forces now are converging that make possible, for the first time, the hope that many of man's deepest aspirations can at last be realized. the spiraling pace of change allows us to contemplate, within our own lifetime, advances that once would have taken centuries. in throwing wide the horizons of space, we have discovered new horizons on earth. for the first time, because the people of the world want peace, and the leaders of the world are afraid of war, the times are on the side of peace.[applause]
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eight years from now america will celebrate its 200th anniversary as a nation. within the lifetime of most people now living, mankind will celebrate that great new year which comes only once in a thousand years -- the beginning of the third millennium. what kind of a nation we will be, what kind of a world we will live in, whether we shape the future in the image of our hopes, is ours to determine by our actions and our choices. the greatest honor history can bestow is the title of peacemaker. this honor now beckons america the chance to help lead the world at last out of the valley of turmoil and onto that high ground of peace that man has
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dreamed of since the dawn of civilization. if we succeed, generations to come will say of us now living that we mastered our moment, that we helped make the world safe for mankind. this is our summons to greatness. i believe the american people are ready to answer this call. the second third of this century has been a time of proud achievement. we have made enormous strides in science and industry and agriculture. we have shared our wealth more broadly than ever. we have learned at last to manage a modern economy to assure its continued growth. we have given freedom new reach. we have begun to make its promise real for black as well as for white. we see the hope of tomorrow in the youth of today. i know america's youth. i believe in them.
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we can be proud that they are better educated, more committed, more passionately driven by conscience than any generation in our history. no people has ever been so close to the achievement of a just and abundant society, or so possessed of the will to achieve it. and because our strengths are so great, we can afford to appraise our weaknesses with candor and to approach them with hope. standing in this same place a third of a century ago, franklin delano roosevelt addressed a nation ravaged by depression and gripped in fear. he could say in surveying the nation's troubles -- "they concern, thank god, only material things." our crisis today is in reverse. we find ourselves rich in goods,
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but ragged in spirit, reaching with magnificent precision for the moon, but failing into raucous discord on earth. we are caught in war, wanting peace. we are torn by division, wanting unity. we see around us empty lives, wanting fulfillment. we see tasks that need doing, waiting for hands to do them. to a crisis of the spirit, we need an answer of the spirit. and to find that answer, we need only look within ourselves. when we listen to "the better angels of our nature," we find that they celebrate the simple things, the basic things -- such as goodness, decency, love, kindness. greatness comes in simple trappings.
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the simple things are the ones most needed today if we are to surmount what divides us, and cement what unites us. to lower our voices would be a simple thing. in these difficult years, america has suffered from a fever of words, from inflated rhetoric that promises more than it can deliver, from angry rhetoric that fans discontents into hatreds, from bombastic rhetoric that postures instead of persuading. we cannot learn from one another until we stop shouting at one another -- until we speak quietly enough so that our words can be heard as well as our voices.[applause] for its part, government will listen. we will strive to listen in new
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ways -- to the voices of quiet anguish, the voices that speak without words, the voices of the heart -- to the injured voices, the anxious voices, the voices that have despaired of being heard. those who have been left out, we will try to bring in. those left behind, we will help to catch up. for all of our people, we will set as our goal the decent order that makes progress possible and our lives secure. as we reach toward our hopes, our task is to build on what has gone before -- not turning away from the old, but turning toward the new. in this past third of a century, government has passed more laws, spent more money, initiated more programs than in all our previous history. in pursuing our goals of full employment, better housing, excellence in education, in rebuilding our cities and improving our rural areas, in protecting our environment and enhancing the quality of life -- in all these and more, we will and must press urgently forward.
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we shall plan now for the day when our wealth can be transferred from the destruction of war abroad to the urgent needs of our people at home. the american dream does not come to those who fall asleep. but we are approaching the limits of what government alone can do. our greatest need now is to reach beyond government, to enlist the legions of the concerned and the committed. what has to be done, has to be done by government and people together or it will not be done at all. the lesson of past agony is that without the people we can do nothing -- with the people we can do everything.
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to match the magnitude of our tasks, we need the energies of our people -- enlisted not only in grand enterprises, but more importantly in those small, splendid efforts that make headlines in the neighborhood newspaper instead of the national journal. with these, we can build a great cathedral of the spirit -- each of us raising it one stone at a time, as he reaches out to his neighbor, helping, caring, doing. i do not offer a life of uninspiring ease. i do not call for a life of grim sacrifice. i ask you to join in a high adventure -- one as rich as humanity itself, and exciting as the times we live in. the essence of freedom is that each of us shares in the shaping
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of his own destiny. until he has been part of a cause larger than himself, no man is truly whole. the way to fulfillment is in the use of our talents. we achieve nobility in the spirit that inspires that use. as we measure what can be done, we shall promise only what we know we can produce, but as we chart our goals, we shall be lifted by our dreams. no man can be fully free while his neighbor is not. to go forward at all is to go forward together. this means black and white together, as one nation, not two. the laws have caught up with our conscience. what remains is to give life to what is in the law -- to insure at last that as all are born equal in dignity before god, all are born equal in dignity before
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man. as we learn to go forward together at home, let us also seek to go forward together with all mankind. let us take as our goal -- where peace is unknown, make it welcome, where peace is fragile, make it strong, where peace is temporary, make it permanent. after a period of confrontation, we are entering an era of negotiation. let all nations know that during this administration our lines of communication will be open. we seek an open world -- open to ideas, open to the exchange of goods and people -- a world in which no people, great or small, will live in angry isolation. we cannot expect to make everyone our friend, but we can
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try to make no one our enemy. those who would be our adversaries, we invite to a peaceful competition -- not in conquering territory or extending dominion, but in enriching the life of man. as we explore the reaches of space, let us go to the new worlds together -- not as new worlds to be conquered, but as a new adventure to be shared. with those who are willing to join, let us cooperate to reduce the burden of arms, to strengthen the structure of peace, to lift up the poor and the hungry.
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but to all those who would be tempted by weakness, let us leave no doubt that we will be as strong as we need to be for as long as we need to be. over the past 90 years, since i -- 20 years, since i first came to this capital as a freshman congressman, i have visited most of the nations of the world. i have come to know the leaders of the world and the great forces, the hatreds, the fears that divide the world. i know that peace does not come through wishing for it -- that there is no substitute for days and even years of patient and prolonged diplomacy. i also know the people of the world. i have seen the hunger of a homeless child, the pain of a man wounded in battle, the grief of a mother who has lost her son. i know these have no ideology, no race.
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i know america. i know the heart of america is good. i speak from my own heart, and the heart of my country, the deep concern we have for those who suffer and those who sorrow. i have taken an oath today in the presence of god and my countrymen to uphold and defend the constitution of the united states. to that oath i now add this sacred commitment -- i shall consecrate my office, my energies, and all the wisdom i can summon to the cause of peace among nations. let this message be heard by strong and weak alike -- the peace we seek the peace we seek to win -- is not victory over any other people, but the peace that comes "with healing in its wings", with compassion
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for those who have suffered, with understanding for those who have opposed us, with the opportunity for all the peoples of this earth to choose their own destiny. only a few short weeks ago we shared the glory of man's first sight of the world as god sees it, as a single sphere reflecting light in the darkness. as the apollo astronauts flew over the moon's gray surface on christmas eve, they spoke to us of the beauty of earth-and in that voice so clear across the lunar distance, we heard them invoke god's blessing on its goodness.
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in that moment, their view from the moon moved poet archibald macleish to write -- "to see the earth as it truly is, small and blue and beautiful in that eternal silence where it floats, is to see ourselves as riders on the earth together, brothers on that bright loveliness in the eternal cold -- brothers who know now they are truly brothers." in that moment of surpassing technological triumph, men turned their thoughts toward home and humanity-seeing in that far perspective that man's destiny on earth is not divisible, telling us that however far we reach into the cosmos, our destiny lies not in the stars but on earth itself, in our own hands, in our own hearts.
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we have endured a long night of the american spirit. but as our eyes catch the dimness of the first rays of dawn, let us not curse the remaining dark. let us gather the light. our destiny offers not the cup of despair, but the chalice of opportunity. so let us seize it not in fear, but in gladness, and "riders on the earth together," let us go forward, firm in our faith, steadfast in our purpose, cautious of the dangers, but sustained by our confidence in the will of god and the promise now john f. kennedy's
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inauguration. the day before he was to be sworn in, a snowstorm hit washington d.c. according to a national weather service accounting of the storm, eight inches of snow fell and caused the most crippling traffic jam for it's time. hundreds of cars were marooned and thousands were abandoned. employees worked to clear the parade route, and the events went on at land. here is the swearing in and speech from that year, about 15 minutes.
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>> you john fitzgerald kennedy do solemnly swear >> i do solemnly swear that i will faithfully execute the office of president of united dates. >> and well, to the best of your ability, >> and well, to the best of my ability, >> preserve, protect, and defend the constitution of the united state so help you god. >> preserve, protect, and defend the constitution of the united states, so help me god. [applause]
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>> vice president johnson, mr. speaker, mr. chief justice, president eisenhower, vice president nixon, president truman, reverend clergy, fellow citizens, we observe today not a victory of party, but a celebration of freedom -- symbolizing an end as well as a beginning -- signifying renewal as well as change. for i have sworn before you and almighty god the same solemn oath our forebears prescribed nearly a century and three- quarters ago. the world is very different now. for man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life.
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and yet the same revolutionary beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe -- the belief that the rights of man come not from the generosity of the state, but from the hand of god. we dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first revolution. let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of americans -- born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage -- and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today at home and around the world.
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let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty. this much we pledge -- and more. to those old allies whose cultural and spiritual origins we share, we pledge the loyalty of faithful friends.
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united there is little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures. divided there is little we can do -- for we dare not meet a powerful challenge at odds and split asunder. to those new states whom we welcome to the ranks of the free, we pledge our word that one form of colonial control shall not have passed away merely to be replaced by a far more iron tyranny. we shall not always expect to find them supporting our view. but we shall always hope to find them strongly supporting their own freedom -- and to remember that, in the past, those who foolishly sought power by riding the back of the tiger ended up inside.
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to those people in the huts and villages of half the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass misery, we pledge our best efforts to help them help themselves, for whatever period is required -- not because the communists may be doing it, not because we seek their votes, but because it is right. if a free society cannot help the many who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich. to our sister republics south of our border, we offer a special pledge -- to convert our good words into good deeds -- in a new alliance for progress -- to assist free men and free governments in casting off the chains of poverty.
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but this peaceful revolution of hope cannot become the prey of hostile powers. let all our neighbors know that we shall join with them to oppose aggression or subversion anywhere in the americas. and let every other power know that this hemisphere intends to remain the master of its own house. to that world assembly of sovereign states, the united nations, our last best hope in an age where the instruments of war have far outpaced the instruments of peace, we renew our pledge of support -- to prevent it from becoming merely a forum for invective -- to
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strengthen its shield of the new and the weak -- and to enlarge the area in which its writ may run. finally, to those nations who would make themselves our adversary, we offer not a pledge but a request -- that both sides begin anew the quest for peace, before the dark powers of destruction unleashed by science engulf all humanity in planned or accidental self-destruction. we dare not tempt them with weakness. for only when our arms are sufficient beyond doubt can we be certain beyond doubt that they will never be employed. but neither can two great and powerful groups of nations take
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comfort from our present course both sides overburdened by the cost of modern weapons, both rightly alarmed by the steady spread of the deadly atom, yet both racing to alter that uncertain balance of terror that stays the hand of mankind's final war. so let us begin anew -- remembering on both sides that civility is not a sign of weakness, and sincerity is always subject to proof. let us never negotiate out of fear. but let us never fear to negotiate. let both sides explore what problems unite us instead of belaboring those problems which divide us.
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let both sides, for the first time, formulate serious and precise proposals for the inspection and control of arms and bring the absolute power to destroy other nations under the absolute control of all nations. let both sides seek to invoke the wonders of science instead of its terrors. together let us explore the stars, conquer the deserts, eradicate disease, tap the ocean depths and encourage the arts and commerce. let both sides unite to heed in all corners of the earth the command of isaiah -- to "undo the heavy burdens, let the oppressed go free."
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and if a beachhead of cooperation may push back the jungle of suspicion, let both sides join in creating a new endeavor, not a new balance of power, but a new world of law, where the strong are just and the weak secure and the peace preserved. all this will not be finished in the first one hundred days. nor will it be finished in the first one thousand days, nor in the life of this administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. but let us begin. in your hands, my fellow citizens, more than mine, will rest the final success or failure of our course.
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since this country was founded, each generation of americans has been summoned to give testimony to its national loyalty. the graves of young americans who answered the call to service surround the globe. now the trumpet summons us again not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need -- not as a call to battle, though embattled we are -- but a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, year in and year out, "rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation" -- a struggle against the common enemies of man -- tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself. can we forge against these enemies a grand and global
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alliance, north and south, east and west, that can assure a more fruitful life for all mankind? will you join in that historic effort? in the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. i do not shrink from this responsibility -- i welcome it. i do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. the energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it -- and the
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glow from that fire can truly light the world. and so, my fellow americans -- ask not what your country can do for you -- ask what you can do for your country. my fellow citizens of the world ask not what america will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man. finally, whether you are citizens of america or citizens of the world, ask of us here the same high standards of strength and sacrifice which we ask of you.
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with a good conscience our only sure reward, with history the final judge of our deeds, let us go forth to lead the land we love, asking his blessing and his help, but knowing that here on earth god's work must truly be our own. [applause] >> next, we continue with our look at presidential inaugurations over the past 65 years. we will show you the speeches of george h w bush, lyndon johnson, jimmy carter, and george w. bush. >> i, barack hussein obama, do
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solemnly swear -- >> this weekend, the 57th annual presidential inauguration. sunday, the official swearing in ceremony at the white house. our coverage includes your phone calls and begins a look back at the president's 2009 inaugural address. then monday, the swearing in noon eastern at the us capitol. live all-day coverage begins at 7:00 a.m. eastern on c-span, c- span radio, and also, join us on facebook and twitter #inaug013 >> throughout inauguration day, our website will have added features,
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including video feeds from our c-span cruise, video on demand from the events. this is at president george h. w. bush was inaugurated in 1989. he was nominated for two terms before beating michael dukakis. resident bush was sworn in using the same bible that george washington used. this is about 25 minutes. [applause] >> raise your right hand and repeat after me -- i, george herbert walker bush do solemnly swear -- >> i george herbert walker bush do solemnly swear --
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>> that i will faithfully execute the office of president of the united states. >>@i will faithfully execute the office of president of the united states. pre-k's and well, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the constitution of the united states. >> preserve, protect, and defend the constitution of the united states, so help me god. [applause]♪ ♪
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>> ladies and gentlemen, the president of the united states. [applause] >> mr. chief justice, mr. president, vice president quayle, senator mitchell, speaker wright, senator dole, congressman michel, and fellow citizens, neighbors, and friends, there is a man here who has
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earned a lasting place in our hearts and in our history. president reagan, on behalf of our nation, i thank you for the wonderful things that you have done for america. i have just repeated word for word the oath taken by george washington 200 years ago, and the bible on which i placed my hand is the bible on which he placed his. it is right that the memory of washington be with us today, not
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only because this is our bicentennial inauguration, but because washington remains the father of our country. and he would, i think, be gladdened by this day, for today is the concrete expression of a stunning fact -- our continuity these 200 years since our government began. we meet on democracy's front porch, a good place to talk as neighbors and as friends. for this is a day when our nation is made whole, when our differences, for a moment, are suspended. and my first act as president is a prayer. i ask you to bow your heads -- heavenly father, we bow our heads and thank you for your love. accept our thanks for the peace that yields this day and the shared faith that makes its continuance likely. make us strong to do your work,
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willing to heed and hear your will, and write on our hearts these words -- "use power to help people." for we are given power not to advance our own purposes, nor to make a great show in the world, nor a name. there is but one just use of power, and it is to serve people. help us to remember it, lord. amen. i come before you and assume the presidency at a moment rich with promise. we live in a peaceful, prosperous time, but we can make it better. for a new breeze is blowing, and a world refreshed by freedom seems reborn, for in man's heart, if not in fact, the day of the dictator is over. the totalitarian era is passing, its old ideas blown away like
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leaves from an ancient, lifeless tree. a new breeze is blowing, and a nation refreshed by freedom stands ready to push on. there is new ground to be broken, and new action to be taken. there are times when the future seems thick as a fog, you sit and wait, hoping the mists will lift and reveal the right path. but this is a time when the future seems a door you can walk right through into a room called tomorrow. great nations of the world are moving toward democracy through the door to freedom. men and women of the world move toward free markets through the door to prosperity. the people of the world agitate for free expression and free thought through the door to the moral and intellectual satisfactions that only liberty allows.
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we know what works -- freedom works. we know what's right -- freedom is right. we know how to secure a more just and prosperous life for man on earth -- through free markets, free speech, free elections, and the exercise of free will unhampered by the state.[applause] for the first time in this century, for the first time in perhaps all history, man does not have to invent a system by which to live. we don't have to talk late into the night about which form of government is better. we don't have to wrest justice from the kings. we only have to summon it from within ourselves.
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we must act on what we know. i take as my guide the hope of a saint -- in crucial things, unity, in important things, diversity, in all things, generosity. america today is a proud, free nation, decent and civil, a place we cannot help but love. we know in our hearts, not loudly and proudly, but as a simple fact, that this country has meaning beyond what we see, and that our strength is a force for good. but have we changed as a nation even in our time? are we enthralled with material things, less appreciative of the nobility of work and sacrifice? my friends, we are not the sum of our possessions.
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they are not the measure of our lives. in our hearts we know what matters. we cannot hope only to leave our children a bigger car, a bigger bank account. we must hope to give them a sense of what it means to be a loyal friend, a loving parent, a citizen who leaves his home, his neighborhood and town better than he found it. what do we want the men and women who work with us to say when we are no longer there? that we were more driven to succeed than anyone around us? or that we stopped to ask if a sick child had gotten better, and stayed a moment there to trade a word of friendship? no president, no government, can teach us to remember what is best in what we are. but if the man you have chosen
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to lead this government can help make a difference, if he can celebrate the quieter, deeper successes that are made not of gold and silk, but of better hearts and finer souls, if he can do these things, then he must. america is never wholly herself unless she is engaged in high moral principle. we as a people have such a purpose today. it is to make kinder the face of the nation and gentler the face of the world. my friends, we have work to do. there are the homeless, lost and roaming. there are the children who have nothing, no love, no normalcy. there are those who cannot free
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themselves of enslavement to whatever addiction--drugs, welfare, the demoralization that rules the slums. there is crime to be conquered, the rough crime of the streets. there are young women to be helped who are about to become mothers of children they can't care for and might not love. they need our care, our guidance, and our education, though we bless them for choosing life. the old solution, the old way, was to think that public money alone could end these problems. but we have learned that is not so. and in any case, our funds are low. we have a deficit to bring down. we have more will than wallet, but will is what we need. we will make the hard choices, looking at what we have and
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perhaps allocating it differently, making our decisions based on honest need and prudent safety. and then we will do the wisest thing of all -- we will turn to the only resource we have that in times of need always grows-- the goodness and the courage of the american people. i am speaking of a new engagement in the lives of others, a new activism, hands- on and involved, that gets the job done. we must bring in the generations, harnessing the unused talent of the elderly and the unfocused energy of the young. for not only leadership is passed from generation to
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generation, but so is stewardship. and the generation born after the second world war has come of age. i have spoken of a thousand points of light, of all the community organizations that are spread like stars throughout the nation, doing good. we will work hand in hand, encouraging, sometimes leading, sometimes being led, rewarding. we will work on this in the white house, in the cabinet agencies. i will go to the people and the programs that are the brighter points of light, and i will ask every member of my government to become involved. the old ideas are new again because they are not old, they are timeless -- duty, sacrifice, commitment, and a patriotism that finds its expression in taking part and pitching in.
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we need a new engagement, too, between the executive and the congress. the challenges before us will be thrashed out with the house and the senate. we must bring the federal budget into balance. and we must ensure that america stands before the world united, strong, at peace, and fiscally sound. but, of course, things may be difficult. we need compromise, we have had dissension. we need harmony, we have had a chorus of discordant voices. for congress, too, has changed in our time. there has grown a certain divisiveness. we have seen the hard looks and heard the statements in which not each other's ideas are challenged, but each other's motives.
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and our great parties have too often been far apart and untrusting of each other. it has been this way since vietnam. that war cleaves us still. but, friends, that war began in earnest a quarter of a century ago, and surely the statute of limitations has been reached. this is a fact -- the final lesson of vietnam is that no great nation can long afford to be sundered by a memory. a new breeze is blowing, and the old bipartisanship must be made new again. [applause] to my friends--and yes, i do
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mean friends--in the loyal opposition--and yes, i mean loyal -- i put out my hand. i am putting out my hand to you, mr. speaker. i am putting out my hand to you mr. majority leader. for this is the thing -- this is the age of the offered hand. we can't turn back clocks, and i don't want to. but when our fathers were young, mr. speaker, our differences ended at the water's edge. and we don't wish to turn back time, but when our mothers were young, mr. majority leader, the congress and the executive were capable of working together to produce a budget on which this nation could live. let us negotiate soon and hard. but in the end, let us produce. the american people await action. they didn't send us here to bicker. they ask us to rise above the merely partisan.
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[applause] "in crucial things, unity" -- and this, my friends, is crucial. to the world, too, we offer new engagement and a renewed vow -- we will stay strong to protect the peace. the "offered hand" is a reluctant fist, but once made, strong, and can be used with great effect. there are today americans who are held against their will in foreign lands, and americans who are unaccounted for. assistance can be shown here, and will be long remembered. good will begets good will.
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good faith can be a spiral that endlessly moves on. great nations like great men must keep their word. when america says something, america means it, whether a treaty or an agreement or a vow made on marble steps. we will always try to speak clearly, for candor is a compliment, but subtlety, too, is good and has its place. while keeping our alliances and friendships around the world strong, ever strong, we will continue the new closeness with the soviet union, consistent both with our security and with progress. one might say that our new relationship in part reflects the triumph of hope and strength over experience.
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but hope is good, and so are strength and vigilance. here today are tens of thousands of our citizens who feel the understandable satisfaction of those who have taken part in democracy and seen their hopes fulfilled. but my thoughts have been turning the past few days to those who would be watching at home to an older fellow who will throw a salute by himself when the flag goes by, and the women who will tell her sons the words of the battle hymns. i don't mean this to be sentimental. i mean that on days like this, we remember that we are all part of a continuum, inescapably connected by the ties that bind.
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our children are watching in schools throughout our great land. and to them i say, thank you for watching democracy's big day. for democracy belongs to us all, and freedom is like a beautiful kite that can go higher and higher with the breeze. and to all i say -- no matter what your circumstances or where you are, you are part of this day, you are part of the life of our great nation. [applause] a president is neither prince nor pope, and i don't seek a window on men's souls. in fact, i yearn for a greater tolerance, an easy- goingness about each other's attitudes and way of life.
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there are few clear areas in which we as a society must rise up united and express our intolerance. the most obvious now is drugs. and when that first cocaine was smuggled in on a ship, it may as well have been a deadly bacteria, so much has it hurt the body, the soul of our country. and there is much to be done and to be said, but take my word for it -- this scourge will stop. [applause] and so, there is much to do, and tomorrow the work begins. i do not mistrust the future, i do not fear what is ahead. for our problems are large, but
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our heart is larger. our challenges are great, but our will is greater. and if our flaws are endless, god's love is truly boundless. some see leadership as high drama, and the sound of trumpets calling, and sometimes it is that. but i see history as a book with many pages, and each day we fill a page with acts of hopefulness and meaning. the new breeze blows, a page turns, the story unfolds. and so today a chapter begins, a small and stately story of unity, diversity, and generosity--shared, and written, together. thank you. god bless you and god bless the united states of america.
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[applause] >> lyndon johnson was inaugurated in 1965. at the ceremony, ladybird johnson started the ceremony of the first lady's held in the bible swearing in. this is about 15 minutes. >> do you lyndon b. hess johnson, solace where.
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-- solemnly swear that you will faithfully execute the office of the presidency of the united states. and will to the best of your abilities. >> and will to the best of my ability -- >> preserve, protect and defend it -- >> the constitution of the united states and -- >> the constitution of the united states -- >> so help you got a. >> so help me god. [applause]
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>> my fellow countrymen, on this occasion the oath i have taken before you and before god is not mine alone, but ours together. we are one nation and one people. our fate as a nation and our future as a people rest not upon one citizen but upon all citizens. that is the majesty and the meaning of this moment.
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for every generation there is a destiny. for some, history decides. for this generation the choice must be our own. even now, a rocket moves toward mars. it reminds us that the world will not be the same for our children, or even for ourselves in a short span of years. the next man to stand here will look out on a scene that is different from our own. ours is a time of change --
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rapid and fantastic change -- bearing the secrets of nature, multiplying the nations, placing in uncertain hands new weapons for mastery and destruction, shaking old values and uprooting old ways. our destiny in the midst of change will rest on the unchanged character of our people and on their faith. they came here -- the exile and the stranger, brave but
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frightened -- to find a place where a man could be his own man. they made a covenant with this land. conceived in justice, written in liberty, bound in union, it was meant one day to inspire the hopes of all mankind. and it binds us still. if we keep its terms we shall flourish. first, justice was the promise that all who made the journey
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would share in the fruits of the land. we have no promise from god that our greatness will endure. we have been allowed by him to seek greatness with the sweat of our hands and the strength of our spirit. i do not believe that the great society is the ordered changeless battalion -- it is the excitement of becoming the -- always becoming, trying,
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probing, falling, resting, and trying again. but always trying and always gaining. in each generation, with twill and tears -- toil and tear, we have had to gain our heritage again. we will have forgotten an abundance what we learned in hardship. that democracy rests on faith.
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bent freedom asks more than it gives. and the judgment of god is harshest on at those who are most favored. if we succeed it will not be because of what we have, but it will be because of what we are, not because of what we own, but rather because of what we believe. [applause] for we are a nation of believers. underneath the clamor of
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building and the rush of our day's pursuits, we are believers in justice and liberty and in our own union. we believe that every man must some day be free. [applause] and we believe in ourselves. and that is the mistake that our enemies have always made. in my lifetime, in depression
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and in war they have awaited our defeat. each time, from the secret places of the american heart, came forth the faith that they could not see or that they could not even imagine. and it brought us victory. and it will again. [applause] for this is what america is all about. it is the uncrossed desert and the unclimbed ridge. it is the star that is not
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reached and the harvest that is sleeping in the unplowed ground. is our world gone? we say farewell. is a new world coming? we welcome it, and we will bend it to the hopes of man. [applause] and to these trusted public servants and to my family, and those close friends of mine who have followed me down a long winding road, and to all the people of this union and the world, i will repeat today what i said on that sorrowful day in november last year -- i will lead and i will do the best i
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can. but you, you must look within your own hearts to the old promises and to the old dreams. they will lead you best of all. for myself, i ask only in the words of an ancient leader -- "give me now wisdom and knowledge, that i may go out and come in before this people
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-- for who can judge this thy people, that is so great?" [applause] >> and observance of martin luther king holiday this monday, children gathered to read his "i dream -- i have a dream" speech. the children participating or fifth graders from the watkins elementary school in washington, d.c. >> will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.
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>> i have a dream that one day even the state of mississippi, a state sweltering in the heat of oppression and injustice will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. >> i have a dream that my children will live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of the skin but by the content of their character. >> i have a dream that one day down in alabama, one day right there in alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls and sisters and brothers. >> i have a dream today. >> i have a dream that one day every --
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>> the glory of the lord shall be revealed. this is our hope and the faith that we have. this is the hope and the faith to go back to the south with. >> we will be able to heal the mountain of despair into hope and we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. >> with this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up and freedom together knowing we will be free one day. >> this will be the day when all of god's children will sing with
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new meaning. if america is a great nation, this will come true. >> let freedom ring from the heightening alleghenies of pennsylvania. >> let freedom ring from the snowcapped rockies of colorado. >> let freedom ring from california. california.


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